Insects.

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Centipedes vs Millipedes

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  • many legged animals.
  • 3000 species centipedes vs millipedes with 7500 species.
  • worm like body, many leg bearing segments.
  • beneath rocks + soil + moist areas - not waterproof - lose water.

Centipede

  1. carnivore - poison claws head region (catch/stun/kill)
  2. eat - earthworms, toads, small snakes, mice.
  3. North American specie = red/brown 3-6 centimeters long.
  4. tropical = bright color 26 centimeter long.
  5. 15-170 pairs of legs. Each segments - pair of legs.
  6. except 1st and last 3 segments. = legless.

Millipede

  1. twice as many legs.
  2. two pairs of legs per body segment.
  3. damp places under rocks, decaying logs.
  4. eat dead, decaying plants.
  5. roll up on ball protect softer underside.
  6. unpleasant + toxic chemicals.

Insects

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  • 900,000 species, new ones being discovered all the time.
  • body divided by 3 parts (head/thorax/abdomen) + 3 pairs of legs in thorax.
  • 1 pair of antennae/compound eyes/wings.
  • insect-um (notched) Ant sections clear, grasshoppers sections not clear.

Feeding

  • 3 pair mouth part appendages (mandibles)
  • grasshopper - cut, chew plants into fine pulp.
  • female mosquito - sharp tube - pierce skin - suck blood.
  • butterfly - fused together mouth = long tube to suck nectar.
  • fly - sponge like - soak up food.
  • adaptions to feeding are not restricted to shape.
  • produce saliva - digestive enzymes to break down food.
  • female mosquitoes saliva contains chemicals to prevent blood from clotting. also contains itching reaction chemicals along with pathogens.
  • bees gather - process - store food.
  • legs and bodies worker covered with hair - collect pollen.
  • bee saliva - help change nectar into digestible form (honey)
  • glands abdomen secrete wax - build storage chambers for food.

Movement

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  • 3 walking legs - spines and hooks - holding/defense - capturing/jumping/holding.
  • birds/bats/insects - unassisted flying.
  • butterflies - slowly + limited maneuverability.
  • flies/bees/moths - hover, change direction rapidly, dart speed of 53 km/hr.
  • space in thorax taken up large muscles operate wings + lots of energy.
  • specials blood supply - retain heat - muscle activity.
  • keep wings warm so wings operate in cold temperatures.

Societies

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  • colonies (collection of indivuals of same species)
  • colony = society - dependent on one another for survival.
  • termites/wasps/bees/ants = social insects.
  • half a dozen --> 7 million individuals.
  • tasks for survival of group: several castes/types of individuals.
  • caste = each has body specialized for its function.
  • reproductive females/males + workers.
  • female -- queens - lay eggs - 1 queen + largest in society.
  • termites - 14 cm vs .5cm = 10x longer.
  • can produce 30,000 eggs a day!
  • male -- fertilize eggs, termites male stays with the queen, whereas bees die after fertilization, and then ejected from colony.
  • workers -- care queen/eggs/young. gather/store/grow food.
  • build/maintain/defend home. + perform all other jobs.
  • bees/ants/wasps/ - workers female. termites - male/female.

Communications

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  • sound, visual, chemical, other signals.
  • nonsocial - finding mate.
  • attraction --> crickets rub forewing together which makes a chirpping sound.
  • cicadas --> vibrate special membrane = buzz.
  • fireflies --> turn light on and off in adbdomen, making a flash. the female fireflies which are wingless so they're called glowworms, they correct signal, then the male will fly down to them.
  • carnivourous female genus of fireflies can mimic signal luring males to their death.
  • moths --> females release chemicals (phermones) which affects behavious/development of same species.
  • social - more sophisticated system - visual, touch, sound.
  • Phermones= important.
  • ants --> rapid short term message = alarm/death/food.
  • worker antsa find food. drag butt along ground leaving a trial of their scent to food. so other ants can come and get some.
  • Queen - prevents development of rival queens. so workers don't lat eggs.
  • queen substance low --> workers feed female larvae special diet, to up bring a queen.
  • honeybees --> sound and movement = type/quality/distance of food = "dancing"

  1. Round Dance ::found food, circles one way than the other way, over and over.50 metres within hive. frequency change directions -->quality.more frequent --> greater energy value of food. others smell receptors to tell what kind of flower it is.
  2. Waggle Dance :: forward in straight line --> waggling abdomen. circles one way -->straight line --> waggle other way. = +50 metres away from hive. longer straight line + more waggle --> farther away. direction of straight line = direction of food.
As annoying as bugs are, hence why they are called "bugs" cause they bug you; but in truth agriculture would be immpossible withouth bee, butterflies, wasps, moths, and flies.