Recent Changes

Wednesday, October 12

  1. page Monerans. edited ... Classification. ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~…
    ...
    Classification.
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~
    placed{06_Prokaryote_vs_Eukaryote_2.jpg}
    placed
    in kingdom Monera. {06_Prokaryote_vs_Eukaryote_2.jpg}
    first large groups organisms. 4 phyla classes (Eubacteria, Cyanobacteria, Prochlorobacteria, Archaebacteria) ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~Eubacteria-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~~-~-~-~~-~-~-~--~-~-~-~
    largest phyla. wide variety of organisms, many different lifestyles.
    (view changes)
    10:54 am
  2. page Monerans. edited ... ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~~-~-~ …
    ...
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~~-~-~
    Classification.
    placed~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~
    placed
    in kingdom Monera. {06_Prokaryote_vs_Eukaryote_2.jpg}
    first large groups organisms. 4 phyla classes (Eubacteria, Cyanobacteria, Prochlorobacteria, Archaebacteria) ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~Eubacteria-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~~-~-~-~~-~-~-~--~-~-~-~
    largest phyla. wide variety of organisms, many different lifestyles.
    ...
    look same under microscope
    3 other characteristics: cell walls, movement, obtain energy.
    {images.jpg}
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-Cell Wall-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~--~-~-~-~-~-~-~--~
    gram staining = chemical nature of cell walls study. (consists of 2 dyes, purple + red)
    add stain to bacteria, with one thick layer of carbohydrates and protein muscles, took up crystal violet. (gram-positive bacteria)
    outer layer of lipid and carbohydrates molecules took up red safranine. (gram-negative bacteria)
    {300px-Gram_Stain_Anthrax.jpg} {Gram_stain_01.jpg}
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-Movement-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~--~-~-~-~-~-~--~
    propelled by one of more flagella.
    (view changes)
    10:53 am
  3. file images.jpg uploaded
    10:50 am
  4. page Monerans. edited ... M ON ERAN S. Prokaryotic Cells {388851-332310-2.jpg} invention of the light microscope o…
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    M ON ERAN S.
    Prokaryotic Cells
    {388851-332310-2.jpg}
    invention of the light microscope opened our eyes.
    microscopic life covers nearly every square centimeter of planet Earth.
    ...
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~
    Identification.
    {hyphae,_several.jpeg}
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-Cell Shape-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~--~-~-~-~-~-~-~
    Bacteria have 3 shapes: rod (bacilli), sphere (cocci), spiral (spirilla).
    (view changes)
    10:48 am
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  7. 10:46 am
  8. page Monerans. edited ... few can survive in hot water, hot springs. other in arctic, even grow on snow.. first to reco…
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    few can survive in hot water, hot springs. other in arctic, even grow on snow..
    first to recolonize of site of natural disaster eg. volcanic eruption.
    ~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~--~-~-~-~-~-~Archaebacteria~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-Archaebacteria + Prochlorobacteria-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~~-~--~--~
    A = extremely harsh environments. one group - oxygen-free environment = thick mud & digestive tracts of animals (methanogens - produce methane gas)
    other A = live in salty environments (great salt lake) / hot (hot springs)
    ...
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-Cell Wall-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~--~-~-~-~-~-~-~--~
    gram staining = chemical nature of cell walls study. (consists of 2 dyes, purple + red)
    ...
    layer of carbscarbohydrates and protein
    ...
    lipid and carbcarbohydrates molecules took
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-Movement-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~--~-~-~-~-~-~--~
    propelled by one of more flagella.
    ...
    F = enables cells to carry energy production without oxygen.
    organisms that need oxygen = obligate aerobes.
    ...
    obligate anaerobes.
    (eg, clostridium botulinum, found in soil, produce toxins/poisons = botulism, food poisoning = nerve activity, paralysis, breathing muscles, paralyzed/death = canned food)
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~
    Growth & Reproduction.
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~
    grow, reproduce @ fast rates, can every 20 minutes.
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-Binary Fission-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~--~-~-~-~-~
    doubles in size, replicates DNA & divides in half. = 2 identical daughter cells.
    does not involve exchange/recombination of genetic info, asexual form.
    eg. E. Coli.
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~Conjugation-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~--~-~-~-~-~-~-
    long bridge of protein forms between/connects two bacterial cells.
    donor gives genetic info to recipient through bridge.
    complete, recipient has different set of genes = increase genetic population -> helps ensure environment changes few bacteria have right combinations of genes to survive
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-Spore Information-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~--~-~-~-
    growth conditions = unfavorable = spores.
    endospore, produces thick internal wall enclosing DNA + cytoplasm.
    dormant for months-years, waiting on growth conditions.
    improve - open and bacterium begin to grow.
    not a form of reproduction. makes it possible for cells to survive in harsh environments.
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~
    Importance.
    ~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~~-~-~-~-~--~-~
    used in wide production of food/beverages - cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, sour cream, pickles, sauerkraut, vinegar via wine.
    industry - digest petroleum, cleaning small oil spills. remove waste, poisons via water. mine minerals via ground. synthesizing drugs/chemicals.
    intestines - large amount of bacteria - E. Coli. help digest food, produce vitamins we cannot produce on our own.

    (view changes)
    10:36 am

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